Decolonization took place at the same time as the emerging Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, as well as the early stages of the United Nations. Decolonization was often influenced by superpower rivalry, and it had a significant effect on how that competition evolved.
It also had a profound impact on the pattern of international relations in general. The emergence of so many new nations, some of which had key positions, some of which had enormous natural resources, and the majority of which were desperately poor, changed the makeup of the United Nations and the political complexity of every corner of the world.
European powers conquered most of Africa and Southeast Asia from the mid- to late-nineteenth century. The industrializing nations of Europe considered the African and Asian continents as reservoirs of raw resources, labor, and land for future colonization throughout the decades of empire.
Significant development and European settlement in these colonies, on the other hand, was intermittent in most situations. The colonies, on the other hand, were exploited, often ruthlessly, for natural and labor resources, as well as military conscripts.
Furthermore, colonial administration imposed artificial natural borders where none previously existed, separating ethnic and linguistic groupings and natural characteristics, and setting the groundwork for the formation of several nations with no geographic, linguistic, ethnic, or political ties.
While the US backed national self-determination in general, it also maintained strong links to its European allies, who had imperial claims on their former colonies. The United States’ stance was further complicated by the Cold War, as American support for decolonization was counterbalanced by American concerns about communist growth and Soviet strategic objectives in Europe.
Several NATO partners claimed that their colonial territories endowed them with economic and military power that they would not have had otherwise. Almost all of the United States’ European allies felt that after World War II, their colonies would finally offer the raw resources and protected markets for finished commodities that would bind them to Europe.
Whether this was the case or not, the option of allowing the colonies to drift away, maybe into the economic domain of the United States or another power, was unacceptable to any European nation interested in postwar stability. The United States did not press the issue, but it did urge European imperial nations to negotiate an early exit from their foreign possessions. In 1946, the Philippines gained independence from the United States.
However, as the Cold War rivalry with the Soviet Union dominated American foreign policy concerns in the late 1940s and 1950s, the Truman and Eisenhower administrations became increasingly concerned that as European powers lost colonies or granted them independence, Soviet-backed communist parties would gain power in the new states.
This might tip the worldwide power balance in favor of the Soviet Union and deny U.S. allies access to economic resources. Even if new governments did not directly link themselves to the Soviet Union, events such as the Indonesian struggle for independence from the Netherlands (1945-50), the Vietnamese war against France (1945-54), and the nationalist and professed socialist takeovers of Egypt (1952) and Iran (1951) served to reinforce such fears.
As a result, the US employed aid packages, technical support, and even military action to persuade newly independent Third World countries to embrace Western-oriented regimes. In an attempt to persuade newly decolonized countries that communism was an essentially non-imperialist economic and political philosophy, the Soviet Union used similar approaches to attract new nations to join the communist bloc.
Many of the new countries rejected being dragged into the Cold War, joining the “nonaligned movement” that arose following the Bandung conference in 1955 and focusing on their own development.
The newly independent countries that arose in the 1950s and 1960s had a significant role in shifting the power balance inside the United Nations. The United Countries had 35 member states in 1946; when newly independent nations of the “third world” joined the organization, membership had increased to 127 by 1970.
These new member states shared a few characteristics: they were non-white, had developing economies, and were dealing with internal issues stemming from their colonial past, which put them at odds with European countries and made them suspicious of European-style governmental structures, political ideas, and economic institutions.
These nations also became outspoken supporters of further decolonization, resulting in the UN Assembly often outpacing the Security Council on matters of self-governance and decolonization.
The new nations pushed the United Nations to accept resolutions for colonial states’ independence and to establish a special committee on colonialism, demonstrating that, while some countries continued to struggle for independence, the colonial era was coming to an end in the eyes of the international community.
As a result, the Berlin Conference established the ground for Europe’s ultimate military invasion and domination of Africa. The whole continent, with the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia, was colonized by Europeans. Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Portugal were the key colonial powers.
European methods for acquiring African colonies.
Treaty signing; a) Treaty signing with African leaders.
Military conquest and the use of force…. The use of missionaries as frontrunners…. Treachery and the Divide and Rule strategy…. The use of the company rule…. Luring and enticements.
Diplomacy and force are used in tandem.
Africa’s communities lost their ability to produce food, resulting in famine. Traditional African communities began to fade, and Europeans began to hire Asian immigrants, causing animosity between Asians and Africans. Europeans altered the economic structure of African society.
The advantages of the advent of railroads and mining technologies were reaped by Africans. Colonization also brought a larger integration into global commerce.
https://bowie1983book.com/ will answer 3. in what different ways was colonial rule established in various parts of africa and asia.