Structure and bonding theories are used by chemists to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Structure analysis reveals that atoms may be organized in a number of ways, some of which are molecular and others of which are massive structures.
Bonding theories describe how atoms in these formations are kept together. Scientists employ this structural and bonding information to create novel materials with desired qualities. The qualities of these materials may open up new possibilities in a variety of fields.
Solid, liquid, and gas are the three states of matter. At the melting point, things melt and freeze, whereas at the boiling point, they boil and condense.
A simple model may be used to depict the three states of matter. Particles are represented by little solid spheres in this model. Melting, boiling, freezing, and condensing may all be explained using particle theory.
The amount of energy required to convert a substance’s state from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas is determined by the strength of the forces between its particles. The kind of bonding and the structure of the material determine the nature of the particles involved.
The greater the melting point and boiling point of a material, the stronger the forces between the particles.
(Only for HT) The simplistic model above has many limitations, including the absence of forces, the representation of all particles as spheres, and the solidity of the spheres.
You should be able to:
• predict the states of substances at different temperatures given appropriate data;
• explain the different temperatures at which changes of state occur in terms of energy transfers and types of bonding;
• recognize that atoms do not have the bulk properties of materials;
• (HT only) explain the limitations of the particle theory in relation to changes of state when particles are represented by solid inelastic spheres with a radius of a certain radius.
The three states of matter are denoted by the letters (s), (l), and (g) in chemical equations, with (aq) denoting aqueous solutions.
For the reactions in this specification, students should be able to incorporate suitable state symbols in chemical equations.
Ionic compounds feature regular structures (giant ionic lattices) in which oppositely charged ions are attracted by strong electrostatic forces in all directions.
Because of the massive quantities of energy required to break the numerous strong bonds, these compounds have high melting and boiling points.
Ionic substances conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water because the ions are free to move and charge may flow. It is not necessary to be familiar with the structures of individual ionic compounds other than sodium chloride.
Small-molecule substances are often gases or liquids with low melting and boiling points.
Only weak forces exist between the molecules of these substances (intermolecular forces). When a material melts or boils, it is the intermolecular forces that are broken, not the covalent bonds.
Larger molecules have greater melting and boiling temperatures because intermolecular forces rise with their size.
Because the molecules in these compounds do not have an overall electric charge, they do not conduct electricity.
You should be able to describe the bulk characteristics of molecular compounds using the premise that intermolecular forces are weak compared to covalent bonds.
The molecules in polymers are quite big. Strong covalent connections connect the atoms of polymer molecules to other atoms. Polymer molecules have rather strong intermolecular interactions, hence these compounds are solids at room temperature. You should be able to identify polymers based on their bonding and structural diagrams.
Solids with very high melting points are made up of enormous covalent structures. Strong covalent connections bind all of the atoms in these formations to one another.
To melt or boil these substances, these connections must be broken. Giant covalent structures may be seen in carbon compounds such as diamond and graphite, as well as silicon dioxide (silica).
You should be able to identify large covalent structures based on their bonding and structural diagrams.
Metals have massive atom configurations with strong metallic bonds. Most metals have high melting and boiling points as a result of this.
Atoms are stacked in layers in pure metals, allowing them to be bent and molded.
Pure metals are too soft for many applications, therefore they are combined with other metals to form alloys.
You should be able to explain why alloys are tougher than pure metals in terms of atom layer distortion in a pure metal’s structure.
Content Metals are excellent conductors of electricity because their delocalized electrons transfer electrical charge across them. Because energy is conveyed by delocalized electrons, metals are excellent thermal conductors.
Structure analysis reveals that atoms may be organized in a number of ways, some of which are molecular and others of which are massive structures. Bonding theories describe how atoms in these formations are kept together.
Chemical bonds have three basic features that must be taken into account: strength, length, and polarity. The distribution of electrical charge across the atoms connected by the bond determines its polarity.
Intermolecular forces – forces that attract one molecule to its neighbors – such as van der Waals attractions or hydrogen bonding – influence physical attributes. Because the intermolecular forces of attraction are relatively weak, molecules tend to be gases, liquids, or solids with a low melting point.
Bonding may be categorized into three types: ionic, covalent, and metallic.
Bonding between ions.
The term “covalent bonding” refers to a kind of bonding
Bonding with metals.
https://bowie1983book.com/ will answer how bonding and structure are related to the properties of substances