The successive periods in the cultural evolution of mankind are referred to as the “old stone age,” “the centre stone age,” and “the new stone age,” respectively, since stone tools were invented at various points throughout these eras. The primary features of these phases will be covered in the following discussion.
The uplands of these regions provided sufficient levels of rainfall to enable agriculture for the people who lived there, and here is where the first civilizations emerged. As a result of the steady growth in the population, the settlements eventually relocated to the lowlands, where the river valleys provided naturally occuring locations for settling, cultivation, and the domestication of animals.
The Nile, the Tigris and the Euphrates, the Indus, and other rivers were the centres of the first river valley civilizations. The development of water management systems such as canals, bunds, ditches, and other similar structures was a significant contributor to the advancement of agriculture. Pottery and weaving were already well established at this point.
In the year 3500 B.C., the usage of copper, silver, and gold led to the development of metallurgy. Subsequently, bronze and iron were added to the mix. The invention of the wheel for land vehicles about 3000 B.C. and sails for seagoing vessels around the same time made it possible to move heavier weights. The first stages of horse domestication occurred in the steppe grasslands of central Asia around the turn of the second millennium.
The Paleolithic Age may be traced all the way back to a time period that occurred two million years ago. During this time period, increasing periods of glaciation were interspersed with periods of warmer climate. Plants, animals, and humans all tried to adapt to these climatic restrictions, but some of them were unable to do so. Those who were unsuccessful in their efforts died out.
The period known as the Mesolithic Age lasted from around 11,000 to 9,000 years ago. This period is shown before the completion of the last large deglaciations and the replenishment of water bodies by amphibian life.
The crushing and polishing of stone, the beginning of agriculture, the adoption of a stable way of life, the production of stoneware, the domestication of animals, and a more deliberate and focused management of the biotic climate are all characteristics of the Neolithic Age time period.
Edward Tylor, a prominent figure in the study of early cultural evolution, proposed that all cultures advanced in a quasi-linear fashion through three primary stages of progression, which he identified as savagery, barbarism, and civilisation. Tylor was one of the primary researchers in the field of early cultural evolution.
The cultural capacities that allow for cultural transmission and cultural evolution are the result of genetically evolved psychological adaptations that allow individuals to acquire ideas, beliefs, values, practises, mental models, and strategies from other individuals through the processes of observation and inference.
Culture, cultural transmission, and cultural evolution all originate from these genetically evolved psychological adaptations.
Tylor, who lived from 1832 to 1917, held the view that all civilizations must first pass through the primitive, barbaric, and civilised phases of development on their way to becoming fully developed.
As a result, we think of cultural development as the process of making cultural activities, such as the arts, possible in order to bring about the realisation of a desired future, in particular the realisation of a community that is culturally rich and dynamic.