What happened to religion in west africa when islam was first introduced?

What happened to religion in west africa when islam was first introduced? The people of West Africa remained devoted to the faiths of their ancestors. Islam rose to prominence as the dominant religion in the area quite rapidly.

What happened to religion in west africa when islam was first introduced?

West Africans were averse to the new concepts brought forth by Islam, and many disregarded the religion altogether.

What Happend To Religion In West Africa When Islam Was First Introduced?

What changed in the religious landscape of West Africa after the first introduction of Islam?

What happened to the many religions that were practiced in West Africa after the arrival of Islam? The people of West Africa remained devoted to the faiths of their ancestors. Islam rose to prominence as the dominant religion in the area quite rapidly. West Africans were averse to the new concepts brought forth by Islam, and many disregarded the religion altogether.

What Kind Of Changes Came About As A Result Of Islam Being Introduced Into West Africa?

The spread of Islam encouraged commercial interactions between West Africa and the Mediterranean. The religion was responsible for the expansion and growth of the trans-Saharan caravan trade. The commerce resulted in economic growth for West African and Muslim merchants. Muslims from North Africa arrived in large numbers and lived in the areas with the most economic activity.

What Kind of Impact Did the Introduction of Islam Have on West Africa?

The religion of Islam was first introduced to West Africa in a gradual and uncomplicated manner by Muslim merchants and academics. Early expeditions across the Sahara were broken up into a number of phases. At the very southernmost point of the route, non-Muslim locals made the last purchases of goods that had traveled via networks of Muslim vendors.

What Kind Of Influence Did Islam Have On Africa?

The historical influence of Islam on commerce, especially in West Africa, led to a significant rise in the wealth of African people and was instrumental in the establishment of a large number of powerful African empires.

When was Islam first introduced to the people of West Africa?

At the 10th century, Islam gained traction in West Africa as a result of the beginning of the Almoravid dynasty movement on the Senegal River and the fact that several princes and kings converted to Islam during this time. After then, Islam gradually expanded throughout a significant portion of the continent via the use of commerce and preaching.
See more on how the American Revolution affected the rest of the globe here.

Who Was It That Very First Introduced Islam To West Africa?

OVERVIEW: – As early as the eighth century, Arab merchants from North Africa brought Islam to sub-Saharan West Africa. Islam first reached in this region of Africa. The Muslim merchants brought with them commerce and items that could be traded for gold. Additionally, they helped trade by bringing new ideas like as contract law and credit arrangements.

What are three ways that the influence of Islam has been felt in West Africa?

People in West Africa developed new religious rituals and moral standards as Islam expanded over the region. Muslims in Africa were instructed on the religion’s Five Pillars of Faith. They donated alms, fasted, prayed in Arabic, worshiped in mosques, went on pilgrimages, and prayed in Arabic. They were instructed to see all Muslims as belonging to the same group as a whole.

What kind of an effect did the Islamic perspective have on the traditional religious practices that were prevalent in West Africa?

What kind of an effect did Islam’s perspective have on the old religious rituals that were prevalent in West Africa? The Muslims’ openness and acceptance of other religious traditions was a key factor in the religion’s rapid expansion. occupied a vast portion of the land on Earth, including a portion of Europe.

How was it that Islam was able to replace the religious beliefs of the African people?

Which of the following statements best describes how the ideas of African faiths were gradually replaced by those of Islam? Africans were compelled to convert to Islam by Muslims, since Muslims would only trade with other Muslims. As a direct result of the conflict with Italy, Christianity was outlawed in North Africa. During the time period of the slave trade, those from the south who were transported took Islam with them.

How did the spread of Islam occur in West Africa?

Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries. This occurred largely through peaceful means, and as a result, African rulers either tolerated the religion or converted to it themselves.

What Kind Of Religion Was Practiced In Africa Initially?

BBC’s World Service presents “The Story of Africa.” In the first or early second century after Christ, the Christian religion was introduced to the continent of Africa for the first time. According to oral tradition, the first Muslims made their appearance when the prophet Mohammed was still alive (he died in 632). Therefore, the presence of both faiths on the African continent dates back farther than 1,300 years.

Who Was It That Introduced Islam To Africa?

According to the oral narrative of Arabs, the first Muslims to bring Islam to Africa were escaping persecution on the Arab peninsula and making their way to Africa. After this, a military assault took place some seven years after the death of the prophet Mohammed in 639. This invasion was led by the Muslim Arab General Amr ibn al-Asi and it took place in the region of Asi.

Quizlet: How Did Islam Spread To West Africa?

Through commercial interactions, Islam would eventually expand to West Africa… The religion of Islam was practiced by the King of Mali, Mansa Musa. He even traveled more than 3,000 miles to do the Hajj, which is a religious pilgrimage.

What kind of an impact did Christianity have in West Africa?


Christian missionaries did pioneering work in introducing new crafts industries Western education and modern health services in addition to giving converts a new religious faith that they consider to be superior to traditional religions. They did this in addition to giving converts a new religious faith that they consider to be superior to traditional religions.

Who Was It That First Brought Islam To Nigeria, And When Did It Happen?

In the 11th century, Islam was introduced to Nigeria for the first time via Borno in the country’s northeast. Until the Fulani jihad of 1804, which was led by Usman dan Fodio, its spread was mostly a peaceful process mediated by Muslim priests and merchants.

How did Muslims first make their way to Nigeria?

Islam was brought to Nigeria by way of two different geographic routes: the Senegalese Basin, and North Africa…. As a consequence of commerce that took place in the eleventh century between the Kanem kingdom and the Northern African territories of Fezzan Egypt and Cyrenaica, Islam spread across North-East Nigeria, particularly inside the Kanem empire.

How Did Islam Come to Prevail Over Other African Religions in Southern Africa?

Terms included in this group (29)

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What religion did Africans practice prior to the arrival of Christianity?

Before the emergence of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism throughout the globe, polytheism was the dominant religious practice in most of ancient Africa as well as other parts of the world. One notable exception to this rule was the monotheistic religion founded by Pharaoh Akhenaten, who required his subjects to offer prayers directly to his personal deity Aton. This religion only lasted for a brief period of time (see Atenism).

Which of the following is not a consequence of Islam’s influence on West African culture during the medieval period?

Muslims in West Africa urged their fellow citizens to further their education. They established a great number of educational institutions and centers of study. The Muslims’ devotion to learning resulted in the establishment of several expansive libraries. Children were given the opportunity to study the Qur’an at local schools that were established.

How did the influence of Islam spread over Northern and Eastern Africa?

Through conversion and military conquest, Islam eventually extended all the way across North Africa, into the eastern Horn of Africa, and even beyond the Sahara Desert into West African territory. The introduction of Islam into those territories had a considerable influence on the subsequent political and social development of those areas, and Islam continues to be a prominent force in Africa even now.

Why did the spread of Islam take so long in East Africa?

Why did Islam take so much longer to expand over East Africa? … It flourished as a result of the trafficking of gold with the Swahili villages that were located along the eastern coast of Africa. The Great Wall of China. In the majority of African civilizations, what did women do for a living?

What Kinds Of Effects Did Islam Have On Africa Quizlet?

Not only did Islam have an influence in Northern and Eastern Africa, but it also had an influence in Western Africa, particularly in Timbuktu. They adhered to Islamic rules and concepts of what is morally acceptable and unacceptable. … Beautiful mosques were constructed throughout Africa as a result of the spread of Islam, which inspired the region’s architecture.

How did the influence of Islam manifest itself in North Africa?

The religion of Islam has a significant influence on the culture of North African countries. It had an effect on how people lived their lives, including their governments, businesses, and educational systems. During the early centuries of the Common Era (CE), the region of the Middle East served as the birthplace of the religion of Islam… During the time when northern Africa was ruled by Arabs, a significant number of the population converted to Islam.

In what ways did Islam play a role in the establishment and growth of African empires throughout the middle ages?

Between the years 750 and 1500 CE, as many as ten million Africans were sold into slavery and transported over the Sahara Desert as part of the trans-Saharan slave trade. In a nutshell, the introduction of Islam to sub-Saharan Africa aided in the establishment of governmental empires, promoted the growth of commerce and riches, and fueled an expansion in the commercialization of slave labor.

What Role Does Religion Play in African Culture?

In Africa, religious beliefs and practices continue to have the potential to have an impact on the continent’s political and economic systems. A good effect of this kind might help alleviate poverty and corruption, which would contribute to the continent’s overall development on the sociopolitical and economic fronts.

How did Muslims first make their way to Ghana?

Traders from Sahelian tribes in West Africa were the ones who first brought Islam to the region… The religious practice of Islam was brought to Ghana mostly as a consequence of the economic activity of merchants who spoke Mande and Hausa languages.

How did the religion of Islam become so widespread?

It was via military conquest, commerce, and pilgrimage that Islam expanded across the world. Arab Muslim armies were responsible for the conquest of enormous lands and the construction of imperial institutions throughout the course of history. … During the reigns of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, the caliphate, a new governmental organization for Islam, advanced in its development and grew more complex.
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When was it that Islam began to be practiced as a religion?

The seventh century
Despite the fact that its origins span farther back in time, most academics agree that the founding of Islam occurred in the 7th century, making it the most recent of the main global faiths. During the period of the prophet Muhammad, the city of Mecca, which is located in what is now the country of Saudi Arabia, became the birthplace of Islam. The religion is now experiencing a period of fast expansion around the globe. Jan 5 2018

What Kinds of Religious Beliefs Were Upheld in West Africa?

The nations of the Sahel and Sahara are largely Muslim, but Christianity is more popular in the southern coastal countries of West Africa. Close to half of all West Africans are Muslims, and there is a clear division between the north and the south in terms of religion.

Who Was It That First Introduced Religion To Africa?

The advent of the Portuguese in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 15th century marked the beginning of the Christian era in that region. In the year 1652, the Dutch established the first seeds of what would become the Dutch Reform Church in the southern part of the continent.

Up until the 19th century, the majority of people living in the interior of the continent were free to continue practicing the faiths of their ancestors without interference.

Which Empire Was Responsible for the Spread of Islam Throughout West Africa?

The Islamic faith and education were disseminated across West Africa by Mansa Musa. The Mali empire included him as a subject.

What factors led to the widespread adoption of Islam throughout Africa?

A variety of hypotheses have been proposed by experts in an effort to explain why so many Africans converted to Islam.

A number of people underline the prestige and impact of Arabic literacy in promoting state creation. Some people highlight economic incentives, while others note the lure of Islam’s spiritual message.

Which Aspects Of Quizlet Were Influenced By Islam?

Islam’s impact on the globe may be attributed to both its religious and commercial activities. They were influential by their acceptance of religious diversity (accepting of all religions ex: accepted judaism christianity and Islam) astronomy, algebra, and math science (thinking logically and deductively as opposed to carrying out experiments).

Who Was It That First Introduced Christianity To Nigeria?

In the 15th century, Portuguese Augustinian and Capuchin monks brought Christianity to Nigeria. This marked the beginning of the country’s Christian era.

Although it wasn’t until 1842 that Henry Townsend founded the first mission of the Church of England in Badagry, it was named after him.

A Subject That Has Been Ignored For Too Long: Muslim Orality in West Africa

Crash Course in World History #16: Mansa Musa and the Spread of Islam in Africa

Why Jihadists Are Doing So Well In West African Countries

An intellectual history of Muslim West Africa beginning with Timbuktu and moving beyond.

The religion of Islam in West Africa. The beginning, the spread, and the repercussions

The Islamic religion first extended from Arabia to Africa in the early seventh century. Africa was the first continent on which Islam was practiced. The continent is home to around 30 percent of the world’s Muslim population at the present time.

According to estimates made in 2002, Muslims make up around 45 percent of the total population in Africa. North Africa, West Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Southeast, and even among the small but considerable immigrant community in South Africa all have sizable populations of people who follow the religion of Islam.

It is widely accepted that by the second part of the eleventh century, the Sahara had become Dar al-Islam, which literally translates to “the nation of Islam.” The first people in West Africa to be converted were the residents of the Sahara, who are known as the Berbers.

In this chapter, we will discuss the consequences of Islam as well as the spread of Islam in West Africa. This chapter will focus on the expansion of Islam in West Africa. In addition to that, we are going to investigate what the Almoravids have been up to.

The Advancement of Islam in West African Countries

Following the process of Islamization that took place among the Berbers, the religion began to expand into the Western Sudan in the latter decades of the eleventh century. First, Islam expanded to the areas west of the Niger Bend (Senegambia and Mali), then it moved into the Chad region, and eventually it made its way into Hausaland.

Some Arabic sources claim that the King of Gao was the first African king to convert to Islam, and that this occurred in the year 1009. Barmandana, who was ruling Mali during the middle of the eleventh century, is generally regarded as the first King of Mali to convert to Islam.

After the Almoravid invasions, the Kings of Ghana did not convert to Islam until approximately the beginning of the twelfth century. This occurred after the Almoravids had ruled the region.

According to the Arabic sources, Umme Jilmi, who became the king of Kanem in 1086, was the first Muslim King in the territory that is now known as Chad.

Umme Jilmi’s reign began in 1086. Islam was brought into Hausaland for the first time in the twelfth or thirteenth century from either Kanem or Air, although it did not really take hold in Hausaland until the second part of the fourteenth century.

Kanem or Air was the most likely source of Islam’s introduction.

The driving force behind Islam’s rapid expansion throughout West Africa

The introduction of Islam into West African countries may be attributed to the following causes. At the close of the fifteenth century, Islamic influence had already reached the southernmost reaches of the woodland belt.

i. What Islam Is and How It Came to Be

The character of Islam as a religion that tolerates polygamy to some degree, its acceptance of indigenous African faiths, and the simplicity of its theology and method of worship all contributed to the success of Islamic missionaries in winning over followers in Africa.

These qualities also contributed to Islam’s capacity to readily adapt to the African communities with whom it first came into contact. Once again, the process of Islamization in Africa was mirrored by the process of Africanization in Islam.

The production and selling of charms and amulets, which were thought to give protection against evil spirits and, more broadly, assure prosperity in life, were key aspects of winning over converts.

ii. Trade

The trans-Saharan commerce network was a significant contributor, in addition to other factors, to the fast expansion of Islam in West Africa.

Beginning in the seventh century and continuing forward, Muslim merchants from the Maghreb and the Sahara began to settle in the region, first in some of the market centers in the Sahel and later in the Savanna districts.

Al-Bakri, a renowned Arabic scholar and merchant, wrote in the year 1067 that the capital of ancient Ghana was already divided into two parts; approximately six miles apart, the Muslim traders’ part which had as many as twelve mosques and the King’s part which had one mosque for the use of the king’s Muslim visitors. Al-writing Bakri’s states that these two parts of the capital of ancient Ghana were about six miles apart. It was the Muslim merchants who lived there who were responsible for bringing Islam to the people in charge of the major town in the area. In addition, the Kano Chronicles state that the Wangarawa people traveled from Melle to Kano during the reign of Yaji, King of Kano from 1349 to 1385.

The Wangarawa brought with them the faith of Mohammed. These are some of the instances that contributed to the acceleration of the process of Islamization or conversion to Islam as it gained pace.

iii. The Activities of Muslim Clerics and Scholars

In addition, the actions of Muslim clerics, marabouts, and academics known as mallams were instrumental in Islam’s introduction throughout West Africa.

These religious leaders, who were also known as clerics or learned men, established their own religious centers, which drew students from all over the Western Sudan. After the students completed their education and training, they returned to their native communities to try to convert people there.

A good number of them began giving sermons or going on missionary journeys in an effort to convert others, while others went on to become advisors to the kings of Sudan on how to become successful rulers. A significant amount of effort was given by certain clerics to the process of authoring books and instructions on all elements of Islam for the purpose of converting people to Islam, educating individuals already practicing Islam, or improving and fortifying Islam.

The following are some instances of clerics:

Ibu Khadija al-Kumi, a Muslim missionary, and Abu Ishaq al-Sahili, a poet, philosopher, and architect from Granada, were both asked by Mansa Musa to join him on his return from his legendary trip in 1324/5.

This event took place in the year 1324. Both of them eventually relocated in Mali, where they worked as Islamic teachers. In addition, Al-Sahili was responsible for the design of the beautiful mansion that Mansa Musa inhabited in Bamako, which was the capital of Mali at the time.

Once again, the eminent Mande scholar Abd Rahman Zaite, who is now known as Abd al-Rahman Jakhite, decided to make his home in Kano after receiving an invitation to do so from King Rumfa of Kano. He constructed a mosque and popularized the act of reciting the Koran in addition to other forms of religious devotion.

In the years 1477 and 1478, a bright Berber scholar by the name of Abd al-Rahman al-Maghili built his Zawiyaie Islamic school in Tuat, which is located in the Sahara. From there, he embarked on a missionary trip of the Western Sudan that lasted from 1492 to 1503. During this journey, he stopped at Air, Takedda, Kano, Katsina, and Gao, where he preached to both the ruling elite and the general populace.

iv. The Pursuits of Powerful People

The actions of several kings in West Africa contributed to the spread of Islam and helped it establish root there. The kings of Western Sudan supported trans-Saharan commerce and gave hospitality to both traveling merchants and visiting preachers.

However, arguably one of the most significant ways in which they boosted adoption of Islam was by converting themselves to the religion themselves. It didn’t take long for the nobility of many nations to see that having a Muslim King or ruler made converting to Islam a matter of pride, and they did so quickly.

Many rulers made significant efforts to encourage Muslim institutions such as Islamic tax and legal systems or the provision of facilities such as mosques.

This was accomplished through the appointment of Muslim officials such as judges and butchers who observe the Islamic code and to lead prayers, as well as through the celebration of Muslim festivals and the ordering of every town under their control to observe the ritual prayers.

The pilgrimages that many of the monarchs went on, such as Mansa Musa and Askia Mohammed, had a significant spiritual influence on them, which increased their will to both strengthen and purify Islam as well as expand it even farther.

v. Holy War (Christian Conflict)

In addition, the practice of militant jihad, also known as the wage of holy war against unbelievers or lukewarm Muslims, was another means by which Islam was brought into West Africa and expanded across the region in general. This was especially true in the Western Sudan. This strategy made it possible for the third and last stage of the process of Islamization to achieve its peak with the jihad that took place in the nineteenth century in the Western Sudan, between Mali and Senegambia, and in Hausaland, which is located in northern Nigeria.

The first Jihad that is documented to have taken place in the Western Sudan was the one that was led by the leader of the Sudanese confederation. In 1023, not long after Tarsina had returned from making the pilgrimage to Mecca, he launched an offensive against the inhabitants of Sudan. During the course of these scuffles, he lost his life.

The second story is that of King War-Ajabbi of Takrur, which takes place before his death in the year 1040. The third of these early jihads was the one that was launched by the Almoravid movement of ancient Ghana between the years 1048 and 1054 by the scholar Abdallah Ibn Yasin. This jihad is the one that is most well recognized today.

The Almoravid dynasty was responsible for the conquest of the whole region between ancient Ghana and Sijilmasa between the years 1056 and 1070. In the year 1087, the Almoravid Empire had already expanded all the way from the Senegal in the south to Spain in the north across the Mediterranean.

vi. Inter-marriage

Intermarriage was another means through which Islam expanded over West Africa. Merchants who practiced Islam from northern Africa traveled south, established there, and converted the local population to their religion by marrying local women and having their children raised as Muslims.

vii. Scholars

The first Muslim missionaries established Islamic educational institutions, such as schools and universities. The students who graduated from these institutions and universities fared very well in their efforts to propagate the faith. They were employed by the governing bodies in roles such as advisers, councilors, and so on. Ibn Yasin, for example, is credited with establishing a Zaniyaor college and initiating the Almoravid movement. Both of these endeavors made significant contributions to the propagation of Islam in the Sahara and Western Sudan. During the first part of the thirteenth century, the Soninke scholar al-Hajj Suware was one of the most influential priests and missionaries in the Western Sudan. He established the significant Zawiga at Diakha – Bambuk, which drew students from all across the Western Sudan. The widespread use of the Arabic script made it simpler for West African kings to run their kingdoms and more quickly collect tax income. This made scholarship an appealing option for West African monarchs, who were already interested in scholarly pursuits.

Timbuktu gained its notoriety as a result of the illustrious Djingnereber Mosque and Sankore University, both of which were founded in the early 1300s during the reign of the Mali Empire’s most renowned king, Mansa Musa. Both of these institutions were located in the city.


The introduction of Islam had a significant influence not only on the people and governments of Western Sudan but also on West Africa in general. Islam, in contrast to Christianity, is not only a religion or a collection of doctrines, beliefs, and rituals; rather, it is a comprehensive way of life or civilisation. The influence of Islam may be broken down into the following categories.


i. Integrity and Consistency

Islam was able to break down barriers of family, clan, and ethnic loyalty because of its emphasis on unity and brotherhood. It made it possible for kings to establish bigger kingdoms and empires that included a diverse range of people and linguistic communities.

Additionally, it gave them a base of authority that was generally acknowledged, which they could use in lieu of the African traditional religions, which varied depending on the region. Many of the kings of Western Sudan, like as Mansa Musa of Mali, Askia Mohammed of Songhai, and Idris Alooma of Borno, did seek to utilize Islam in these ways in order to build a sense of togetherness and as a foundation for their dominance over their subjects.

ii. The Organizational Structure of the Administrative Structure

The majority of the Muslim monarchs in Western Sudan followed the Islamic legal and fiscal systems throughout their time in power. Because of this, Islam contributed to a more effective administration in some of the states located in Western Sudan.

The religion made it possible for the rulers of these states to employ educated Muslims in positions such as secretaries, administrators, judges, and diplomats, and it also made it possible for them to communicate with the rulers and administrators of other provinces.

It is important that even non-Muslim monarchs, as those who ruled ancient Ghana before the eleventh century, engaged some Muslims in their administration. Examples of such rulers include In addition, the holy wars that many kings and queens fought were instrumental in expanding the borders of their respective realms.

iii. The Initialization of Diplomatic Relations

As Mansa Musa and Idris Alooma did with the kings of Egypt and Tunis, the rulers of Western Sudan maintained robust diplomatic contacts with other Muslim monarchs in other countries. Other diplomatic ties were maintained between the Ottoman Empire and the region of Al-Andalus, which is located in southern Spain.

iv. Army

During their time on the hajj, pilgrims had the opportunity to interact with intellectuals and cutting-edge technology at the epicenter of the Muslim world. As a result, these innovations often found their way back home with the pilgrims.

Idris Alooma of Borno, for example, developed a musketeers corps in his army after returning from his pilgrimage with musketeers and Turkish military instructors. This gave him the ability to expand the borders of his kingdom relatively easily.


v. Pilgrimage to Mecca.

In many different ways, the pilgrimage, also known as the hajj, which Muslims were obligated to do if they were financially able to do so led to the expansion and consolidation of some of the nations.

The Hajj gave pilgrims the opportunity to acquire two things: first, the highly coveted title of Al-Hajj, and second, and more importantly, the Barka. The Barka is the spiritual power that a pilgrim obtains by touching the black stone of the Ka’ba, also known as the Great Temple, in Mecca, and by visiting the tomb of the Prophet in Medina.

Both of these experiences are part of the Hajj. This authority was of utmost significance, particularly for the kings and queens who ruled the people, since it substantially enhanced their prestige as well as their religious status in the eyes of their subjects.

Indeed, the gaining of this authority is the primary reason why the hajj was and still is so popular among Muslims, particularly Muslim rulers. This is especially true in modern times.

vi. The Essential Building Block of Islam

In certain regions, the worship of fictitious deities was succeeded by the veneration of real gods. Converts to Islam were expected to practice piety by adhering to the religion’s five tenets, which include daily prayers (including the obligatory Friday prayer), fasting, obligatory philanthropy, and the hajj trip to Mecca (hajj).


vii. Literacy

West Africans were able to learn to read and write thanks to Islam, which also spread Muslim education there. The spread of literacy made it feasible for historians to write down the history and oral traditions of many of the states, which had previously been passed down orally.

One such book is the Tarikh es Sudan, which was composed by Al-Sa’di in Timbuktu in the seventeenth century and is an example of such a book. Literacy also allowed people in Western Sudan to get access to the priceless Islamic literature, sciences, and philosophy, which opened their horizons, strengthened their statecraft, and expanded their knowledge base.

viii. The Foundation of Educational Institutions

As a result of the ongoing propagation of Islam in West Africa, educational institutions and institutions of higher learning were built in the major cities and towns of Western Sudan.

These kinds of cities include Jenne, Timbuctu, Gao Kano, and Katsina, and their founding may be attributed equally to the Islamization of the Western Sudan and the trans-Saharan commerce that occurred at the same time.

ix. Eminent Philosophers and Writers

The spread of Islam across West Africa led to the cultivation of a distinguished intellectual class in the nations of Western Sudan. The Soninke scholar Mahamud Kati (1468-1593), who is credited with writing the Tarikh al Fettash, is one of them (The Chronicle of the Seeker).

Abdurrahman-as-Sadi, a government secretary and diplomat who penned the Tarikh al Sudan, was the second (The Chronicle of Sudan). The third was Ahmed Baba, who authored fifty legal books as well as a biographical dictionary.

He was known for his expertise in legal matters. There are thirteen of his writings that have been discovered. In addition to that, he was the proprietor of a significant library.

Eminent Philosophers and Writers

x. Shifts in Cultural Attitudes and Practices

There was also a shift in West African society’s cultural practices as a direct consequence of Islam’s entrance to the region. In every state of Western Sudan, Muslim wives of notable men were mandated to live in purdah (also known as seclusion) and to cover their faces whenever they were in public.


xi. Architecture

Islam was instrumental in the dissemination of burned brick; for instance, Ibrahim As-Sahil was responsible for the construction of a spectacular brick mosque in Gao, Timbuctu, as well as a stone palace in Mali for Mansa Musa.

xii. Trade

The spread of Islam encouraged commercial interactions between West Africa and the Mediterranean. The religion was responsible for the expansion and growth of the trans-Saharan caravan trade.

The commerce resulted in economic growth for West African and Muslim merchants. Muslims from North Africa arrived in large numbers and lived in the areas with the most economic activity. This contributed to the growth of cities like Timbuktu, Gao, Jenne, and Kano, among others.


West African communities were profoundly impacted by the introduction of Islam as a religion.

First and foremost, it posed a threat to the old religions of Africa, so undermining the foundations upon which some of the Sudanese nations, like as Kanem and ancient Ghana, were built and ultimately leading to their demise.

Second, it often resulted in the division of the governing party between Muslim and non-Moslem groups, which resulted in strife that further damaged some of the nations, such as Songhai.

Thirdly, the jihad was not only responsible for sporadic outbreaks of instability and anarchy in the Western Sudan; it was also a contributing factor in the collapse of some governments, such as the Hanusa.

From this vantage point, it is essential to have an understanding of the development of Islam in West Africa via its many movements. Following this, the rest of the chapter will focus on a number of pivotal occasions, including the Almoravids’ reign in Ghana, the emergence of the Sokoto kingdom in Nigeria, the significance of Omar Tal in the 19th century, and the role that the Jakhanke played in all of these events.


The name “Almoravid” originates from the Arabic word “al-Murabit,” which symbolically refers to “one who is preparing for combat at a stronghold.” The literal translation of “one who is trying” is “one who is attempting.”

An imperial Berber Muslim dynasty that had its capital in Morocco was known as the Almoravid dynasty. During the 11th century, it developed an empire that eventually included all of Al-Andalus as well as the western Maghreb.

Abdallah Ibn Yasin is credited with establishing the dynasty. Marrakesh, the city that was the governing house and was established in 1062, served as the capital of the Almoravid empire.

The Gudala are a group of nomadic Berber tribes who live in the Sahara and travel around the region that is located between the Draa, Niger, and Senegal rivers.

When they decisively defeated a coalition in the Battle of Sagrajas in 1086, the Almoravids played a major factor in preventing the collapse of Al-Andalus to the Iberian Christian kingdoms.

This victory was achieved by the Almoravids. Because of this, they were able to maintain control over an empire that spanned 3,000 kilometers from north to south, stretching all the way from Senegambia to Spain.

Abdallah Ibn Yasin was a Gazzula Berber and most likely wasn’t born a Muslim but converted to Islam later in life.

It is possible to interpret his name as “son of Ya Sin.” Ibn Yasin clearly had the fervour of a puritan fanatic; nonetheless, his theology was primarily distinguished by a stringent formalizing and a strict commitment to the commands of the Quran and traditional orthodox practice.

The audience did not agree with the points that Ibn Yasin presented. In response to questions, he leveled accusations of apostate behavior and meted out severe penalties for even the smallest violations of the rules.

Soon after the passing of his guardian Yahaya Ibn Ibrahim, possibly in the 1040s, the Gudala eventually had enough of him and exiled him practically shortly after the event.

Ibn Yasin, on the other hand, was greeted with more warmth and acceptance by the neighboring Lamtuna people. Yahya Ibn Umar al-Lamtuni, the leader of the Lamtuna people, called Ibn Yasin to preach to his people.

It is likely that Yahya saw the valuable organizational force that Ibn Yasin’s religious passion had. However, the leaders of the Lamtuna kept Ibn Yasin on a tight leash, which ultimately resulted in a more fruitful cooperation between the two of them.

Ibn Yasin preached that conquest was a necessary addendum to Islamicization, that it was not enough to simply adhere to God’s law, law was necessary to also destroy opposition to it, and that he did this by invoking stories of the early life of Muhammad.

He did this by invoking stories of Muhammad’s childhood. According to the philosophy of Ibn Yasin, everything and everything that is not in accordance with Islamic law may be categorized as “opposition.” He singled out tribalism as a particularly difficult barrier to overcome.

He felt that it was not sufficient to just exhort his listeners to set aside their blood loyalties and ethnic divisions in order to accept the equality of all Muslims in accordance with the Sacred Law; rather, he believed that it was required to make them do so.

This new philosophy was convenient for the leadership of the Lamtuna people since it aligned with their long-held ambition to revive the Sanhaja union and reclaim their former dominions.

In the early 1050s, the Lamtuna, under the united leadership of Yahya Ibn Umar and Abdallah Ibn Yasin, who would later name themselves the al-Murabitin (Almoravids), embarked on a campaign with the goal of winning over their neighbors to support their cause.

The Conquest of Northern Africa by the Almoravid Empire

Beginning in the year 1053, the Almoravids started to expand their religious way to the Berber districts of the Sahara as well as to the regions that are located to the south of the desert.

They swiftly acquired control of the whole desert trade route after earning the loyalty of the Sanhaja Berber tribe.

In 1054, they captured Sijilmasa at the northern end of the road, and in 1055, they captured Aoudaghost at the southern end of the route.

Yahya Ibn Umar was slain in a fight in the year 1057; nevertheless, Abdullah Ibn Yasin, whose influence as a religious instructor was important, chose his brother Abu Bakr Ibn Umar as ruler after Yahya’s passing.

The Almoravids quickly started to expand their authority beyond the desert under his leadership and eventually subjugated the indigenous peoples of the Atlas Mountains.

They were subsequently confronted by the Berghouata, a Berber tribal confederation that adhered to an Islamic “heresy” that had been propagated three centuries earlier by Salih Ibn Tarif.

The Berghouata put up a fight against them. In the year 1059, a conflict with them resulted in the death of Abdullah ibn Yasin at the hamlet of Krifla, which is located close to Rommani in Morocco.

However, Abu Bakr Ibn Umar was able to utterly subjugate them, and they were coerced into converting to the puritanical form of Islam.

Zaynab an-Nafzawiyyat, the aristocratic and affluent Berber lady that Abu Bakr wed and who would go on to play a significant role in the formation of the dynasty, was one of Abu Bakr’s wives.

It was reported that Zaynab’s father, a rich merchant from Houara who was originally from Kairouan, was from Kairouan.

In the year 1061, Abu Bakr Ibn Umar created a split of the authority that he had acquired.

He handed over the more settled sections of the empire to his cousin Yusuf Ibn Tashfin as viceroy, and he also assigned Zaynab, his favorite wife, to him.

Ibn Umar was given the responsibility of putting down the rebellions that were taking place in the desert. When he went back to take charge, he discovered that his cousin was too strong for him to be able to replace.

In November of 1087, Abu Bakr was slain in combat in the ancient area of the Sudan by an arrow, according to an oral legend that has been passed down through the generations.

In the meanwhile, Yusuf Ibn Tashfin had successfully placed under his control a considerable portion of what is now Morocco, the Western Sahara, and Mauritania.

In 1062, he was responsible for establishing the city of Marrakech. In the year 1080, he overthrew the kingdom of Tlemcen, which is located in what is now Algeria, and created the city that has the same name as the kingdom. His reign extended as far east as Oran.

The Almoravid Invasion of Ghana and the Establishment of an Empire

Arab folklore asserts that the Almoravid dynasty was responsible for the conquest of the Ghana Empire around the year 1076.

Ibn Khaldun, a well-known historian, kept a record in which he referenced Shaykh Uthman, who was the faqih of Ghana at the time (he wrote in 1394), as an example of this practice. According to this tradition, the Almoravids weakened Ghana and collected tribute from the Sudan, to the degree that the power of the rulers of Ghana fell away, and they were subjugated to and assimilated by the Soso, a nearby people of the Sudan.

The Soso are located in the region of the Sudan. Traditions in Mali state that the Soso invaded and conquered Mali as well, and that the monarch of the Soso, Sumaouro Kante (also spelled Sumanguru Kante), gained control of the region after the invasion.


After that, Sintra and Santarem in Portugal were added by Yusuf’s son and successor, Ali Ibn Yusuf, three years later. He then invaded Iberia again in 1119 and 1121, but the tide had changed since the French had supported the Aragonese in recovering Zaragoza.

Ali ibn Yusuf was ultimately vanquished at the hands of Alfonso VII of Leon in 1138 and Afonso I of Portugal at the Battle of Ourique in 1139, both of whom went on to claim the throne of their respective countries. In 1147, the Portuguese were successful in their conquest of Lisbon.

Some academics believe that Ali ibn Yusuf represented a new generation of leaders who had become used to the urban lifestyle and had forgotten what it was like to live in the desert. He was ultimately vanquished as a result of the concerted efforts of his adversaries who were Christian in Iberia and the Almohads who were the Muwahhids in Morocco.

After his father, Ali Ibn Yusuf, passed away in 1143, his son Tashfin Ibn Ali saw a precipitous decline in power in comparison to the Almohads. After suffering a loss close to Oran, he attempted to flee the area but was murdered in 1146 when he fell over a cliff while trying to escape.

Ishaq Ibn Ali and Ibrahim Ibn Tashfin were the two men who succeeded him, although both of their reigns were rather brief. Although remnants of the Almoravid dynasty, known as the Banu Ghanaiya, continued to fight in the Balearic Islands and eventually in Tunisia after the Almohads’ capture of the city of Marrakech in 1147, this event is considered to be the beginning of the end for the Almoravids.

Organization of the armed forces

In response to any violation of his regulations, Abdallah Ibn Yussin instituted very stringent forms of discipline for his armies. Yahya ibn Umar al-Lamtuni, the first military commander of the Almoravid empire, was responsible for developing a strong military structure for his people.

Their primary force consisted of infantry, who formed a phalanx and were equipped with javelins in the front lines and pikes in the back ranks. They were reinforced by camelmen and riders on the sides of their formation.

They also had a flag bearer at the front who directed the troops that followed after him; while the flag was flying high, the soldiers would stand, but when it was lowered, they would sit. When the flag was lowered, the soldiers would sit.

According to Al-narrative, Bakri’s the Almoravids did not go after individuals who fled in front of them while they were engaged in fight. They engaged in fierce combat, and they refused to flee even though they were outnumbered by an enemy force that was pressing on them; they chose death over defeat.

It’s possible that these features were uncommon during that era.

The Islamic Movement of Jakhanke (Jakhanke).

The Jakhanke Islamic Movement emerged in the 12th century under the leadership of the charismatic scholar Alhajj Salim Suwareh.

This charismatic scholar helped to spread Islam in what are now the countries of Mali, Guinea, Senegal, and The Gambia, which are the most Islamized countries in West Africa today.

A history of Islam in West Africa cannot be considered complete without at least a brief mention of the Jakhanke Islamic Movement. The Islamization efforts in Jakhanke have, without a doubt, produced fruit in plenty!

But before we get into it, let’s start with the most important question: who were the Jakhanke? Why should we pay attention to them in the context of our research on the expansion of Islam in West Africa?

The esteemed Gambian historian Lamin Sanneh, who is also considered the foremost expert on the Jakhanke, refers to the Jakhanke as a “specialized caste” of Muslim priests and educators.

The term “caste” lends them the air of belonging to a larger community, namely the Serahuli ethnic group, which is referred to as Soninke in some other publications. They are incorrectly referred to be Mandinka in modern parlance. They speak a dialect of Mandinka, although their’mandikanization’ was mostly caused by the fact that they were hosted by Mandinka chiefs when the Jakhanke went from the Republic of Mali to the Senegambia area in the present day.

The titles “Cleric” and “Educator” provide the impression that the person is literate and, as a result, competent to engage in religious conversion and service.

It would seem that the Jakhanke people who can be found in significant numbers in the Senegambia area today do not place a great deal of importance on their ethnic origins but rather on the role that they have played in the spread of Islam over the course of the last 800 years.

Exactly for this reason, we ought to be interested in the Jakhanke. They began a nonviolent movement of Islamic dissemination across the Senegambia area.

The horrific violence that is connected with Islam in many areas of the globe makes this topic all the more pertinent at this very moment, when we are writing this.

They were responsible for the development of a significant portion of the future styles and methods connected with the peaceful expansion of Islam in Senegambia. In a word, they determine what constitutes acceptable practices in the field of missionary activity.

What exactly were these requirements? Most importantly, they advocated for a nonviolent approach to Islam. They did not resort to the use of violence in order to propagate the faith.

They resorted to more peaceful methods such as establishing Koranic schools and mosques, upgrading mosques, holding sessions on Koranic exegesis, preserving holy sites where yearly Islamic gatherings take place, and being itinerant traders who brought Islam to their clients and customers. They also preserved holy sites where yearly Islamic gatherings take place.

But in addition to their strategies, they also used several techniques! For instance, because they had this preoccupation with numbers, they were eager to increase the number of talibes or pupils that they had. After spending years being instructed, the disciples would finally be given permission to go their own ways so that they may form new groups of disciples independently. The Jakhanke were able to contribute to the consolidation of their faith via massification.

In addition, one of their strategies consisted of retiring into enclaves that were situated away from the annoying throng. In general, Jakhanke required the peace and quiet of the monastery, and as a result, they were highly skilled at constructing theocratic organizations, often deep in the Senegalese Savannah.

There, they built self-sustaining communities committed to Islamic study and devotion. Examples of such religious communities still in existence today include Sutukuho and Sutukung in The Gambia, as well as Niokhlo and Suna Karantba in Casamance.

The figure of Alhaji Salim Suwareh, the founder of the Jakhanke Islamic organization that was addressed before, has been conspicuously missing from our conversation up to this point.

Because he played such an important role in the accomplishment of the Jakhanke missionary activity, he is deserving of our undivided attention right now.

His childhood is buried in mystery, yet there are a few threads that merit careful investigation and provide light on his early existence. It is said that before moving to Black Africa to promote Islam, he made seven pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had family and resided, before moving to the Jaka district of Masina, which is located in what is now the country of Mali. He passed away about the year 1500.

This is where his people got their name, Jakankhe, which translates to “those who originate from Jaka” in Mandinka. After he had finished his sixth hajj, he went back to Africa and decided to reside there. His people traveled from Jaka Masina to Jaka Bambuku under his leadership. Suwareh followed the example of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, and fled into exile when the animist monarch of Bambuku grew hostile toward him.

Muhammad did the same thing when people in Mecca began to hurl stones at him. Suwareh led his band of Talibes towards the direction of what is now the Senegambia. Since this hijra, also known as a flight-like movement, the Jakhanke, according to the historian Professor Sanneh, “have been bonded by a deep band of solidarity based on adherence to Suwareh defined by ties of solidarity.”

When a religious extremist from the Serahuli tribe named Momodou Lamin Drammeh (1835-1887) decided to wage war in order to convert the people of Bundu (eastern Senegal) to Islam, the Jakhanke disowned him and fled further down to what is now eastern Gambia.

This demonstrates how committed the Jakhanke were to the spirit of peacefully spreading Islam. His rakish approach stood in stark contrast to the methodical methods they used in Islamizing the population.

In contrast to jihadists such as Drammeh, Umar Taal, or Maba Jahou Bah, the Jakhanke were successful in expanding and reforming Islam without the use of the sword.

This allowed them to move the religion forward at a faster rate. How was it possible for Jakhanke, whose master, Suwareh, lived and had relations in Mecca, to have disavowed the strict Wahabi philosophy in order to promote the ‘way of accommodation’?

This contradiction may not be immediately apparent, but it is undeniable.

To draw a conclusion, therefore, what are some of the most important aspects of the Jakhanke movement? Simply defined, the Jakhanke served as a model for the peaceful and community-led propagation of Islam, which had a significant influence on the communities that were receptive to the concept of Islam as a peaceful way of life.

The people who are now throwing bombs and claiming that they are doing it in order to promote this religion may want to take a page (or two) from the Jakhanke movement, which began more than 500 years ago.



Between the years 1804 and 1810, Usman dan Fodio, also known as Usman Ibn Fodio, Uthman Dan Fuduye, or Uthman Ibn Fodio, led a jihad that resulted in the establishment of the caliphate of Sokoto, which was the biggest and most populous state in Africa during the nineteenth century.

According to one report written in the nineteenth century, it took four months to go from west to east, but it only took two months to traverse from north to south. The caliphate was a state that was organized in a decentralized manner with the goal of establishing Islamic rule over its vast area.

The jihad and the caliphate came to a formal end with the British invasion in 1903, but its history has been researched extensively since then, and its legacy lives on today, particularly in Nigeria. The Jihad, the Caliphate, and particularly the Figure of Usman dan Fodio have Been the Subject of Consideration from a Number of Different Viewpoints.

The jihad, which was responsible for the establishment of a prosperous Islamic academia in its own right, has now made way for a vast and diversified body of written work.

The struggle known as jihad and the establishment of the caliphate

According to Dan Fodio, the primary objective of the Jihad was to propagate a purer form of Islam in geographic areas that had already been dominated by Muslims at the turn of the nineteenth century. His conviction that, up until this moment, the leaders of the Muslim community had merely followed a corrupt type of Islam provided the basis for the justification of his campaign.

The socio-economic disparities that existed between the Hausa kingdoms at the turn of the nineteenth century led some historians to interpret the Jihad of Sokoto as a kind of revolution.

The key to Dan Fodio’s success has been his public proclamation that he would not tolerate corruption and his desire for a system of equality.

In the year 1804, Dan Fodio, in his role as a defender of the common people, began his struggle against the monarch and the nobility of Gobir. Even if the social aspect of the jihad should not be completely ignored, Dan Fodio himself claimed in Kitab al-Farq that the primary motivation for the jihad was religious.

This is despite the fact that the social aspect of the jihad should not be altogether forgotten. This article contains enlightening correspondence that was carried on with the ruler of Borno during the 1800s. After failing in his first attempt to conquer the kingdom that had been in existence since the ninth century, Dan Fodio made an effort to persuade Mohammed el-Kanemi of the theological and legal justifications for his fight.

According to Dan Fodio, the Jihad was thought of primarily (but not only) as a means of purifying less devout Muslims by more devout Muslims.

During the 1970s, a number of historians highlighted the role that ethnicity had in the Sokoto Jihad. According to this theory, dan Fodio was the descendent of Fulanis who had been settled in Hausa districts since the fourteenth century. Furthermore, dan Fodio would have opposed Islam against Hausas.

However, even if the majority of the leaders of the Sokoto jihad were Fulani, it is difficult to argue that the numerically inferior Fulani would have believed that they could have overthrown the Hausa kings on the basis of exclusively ethnic grounds. This is because the Fulani are known for their fierce warrior tradition.

In his work Bayan Wayan Wujub al-Hijra, Dan Fodio argued against the practice of any kind of racial or ethnic discrimination.

Academics have also tried to demonstrate that the jihad was not an entirely novel concept in West African countries to the degree that they can.

Indeed, conversations on the status of Islam in society had already taken place before to the jihad of Dan Fodio, whether it was about food prohibitions, marriage regulations, or garments that women were required to wear.

This was the case regardless of the topic being discussed. Shaikh Jibril b. ‘Umar, who was considered to be one of the most accomplished masters of Usman dan Fodio, had become interested in this very final issue.

Before Dan Fodio’s jihad, several jihads had previously taken place in other parts of West Africa (Bundu, late seventeenth century, Futa Jallon, 1725, Futa Toro, 1776).

In other words, prior to the arrival of Usman dan Fodio, there were already certain Muslim academics who held the position of reformers-conquerors.

Therefore, Dan Fodio’s theological inquiry into the jihad was not wholly innovative in nature. The political triumph that he maintained over a large region for an extended period of time was the key to his continued success.

The organization and functioning of the caliphate’s economy

The first six years of the Jihad, which took place between 1804 and 1810, were very important in laying the political and theological groundwork for a state that was never an empire but rather a collection of regions ruled by a caliph based in Sokoto. These years span 1804–1810.

The Caliphate of Sokoto was, in point of fact, a widely decentralized kingdom that was governed by the Caliph. The Caliphate was itself an innovative occurrence in the Hausa territories, and it endowed dan Fodio and his successors with moral and political power.

Companions of the caliph, who were Fulani scholars who had converted to jihadism, were thus put as emirs at the head of each geographical subdivision. These emirs were accountable directly to the caliph for their actions.

The size of the caliphate led to its division into two parts: the western emirates, which fell under the control of Sokoto, and the eastern emirates, which continued to operate more or less independently of one another.

As a result of the several successors of Dan Fodio being forced to conduct military expeditions in order to maintain their power, jihad remained a phenomena that was almost unbroken until the middle of the nineteenth century.

Mohammed Bello, son of Dan Fodio and immediate successor, assumed the title of sultan and commanded multiple expeditions, which he compared to the first Muslims’ conquest of the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh century.

Bello’s approach included settling Fulani nomadic people in villages, installing family members as leaders of frontier towns, and erecting fortified villages to monitor certain boundaries.

Additionally, Bello appointed family members as heads of frontier towns. As a result, it became essential to secure the caliphate’s security not just at its borders but also in the buffer zones that separate each emirate.

The army of Sokoto were able to put down any Tuareg uprising or revolt that originated in the north because of the men that were recruited during the dry season.

The capacity of the caliph to exercise control over his boundaries and to divide the benefits of military battles or tax revenue to allies and members of his family was the source of the caliph’s power.

By instituting Islamic levies such as the zakat in place of the taxes levied by the Hausa kings, the Caliphate was able to theoretically make its earnings subject to Islamic law.

However, the specifics of these taxes varied widely from one emirate to the next. For instance, there was a property tax in Kano and Zaria, which are both located outside of the emirate of Sokoto.

Therefore, Sokoto’s centralizing tendencies on the rest of the caliphate were limited by the pre-jihadic structures of the Hausa cities as well as the impossibility of reaching large parts of the population in the countryside. This was because Sokoto could not reach large parts of the population in the countryside.

In order to remain true to the initial goals of the struggle, the caliphate of Sokoto endeavored to introduce Islamic legal precedent into all of the caliphate’s judicial systems.

Even though the early years of the Caliphate were characterised by a lack of competent staff, the need for educated men fostered the creation of schools in urban centers. This was the case despite the fact that the need for educated men supported the establishment of schools.

Literate staff members working in the administration of each emirate were, in fact, one of the most distinguishing characteristics of the Caliphate of Sokoto. These guys, whether they were born free or in servitude, were members of a functional bureaucracy.

Once again, a shortage of labor was the driving force behind the countless expeditions that set out with the intention of capturing slaves for the purpose of either selling them or putting them to work in the caliphate’s plantations and other centers of production.

Therefore, the use of slave labor was prevalent in the salt mines located in the northern part of the caliphate. The same was true for other industries found in the central parts of the caliphate, such as iron, cotton, indigo, or leather production.

Therefore, the state’s riches was supported by a slave-based economy that was kept afloat by a series of wars and raids. In the 1820s, North African traders sent a lot of slaves to the town of Kano; at that time, there were thirty slaves in the city for every freeman living there.

During the fourteenth century, travelers and merchants from neighboring Borno and territories to the north of the Sahara brought Islam into the Hausa provinces. Jihad was the means by which Islam ultimately expanded across these areas. The faiths that existed before Islam, which are often referred to as “traditional” religions, continued to exist, but Islamic culture was able to spread over the whole area because to the books authored by the family of Dan Fodio and distributed throughout the Sahara.

The Hausa territories were more and more interwoven with the rest of the Muslim world throughout time, whether this occurred via the practice of pilgrimage to Mecca, the spread of brotherhoods, or commerce.

Although there is a possibility that the phenomena of integration within the Muslim world existed before the jihad, the jihad significantly sped up the process.

The organization and functioning of the caliphate’s economy

The removal of the caliphate from power

In 1903, after a relatively short military effort on the part of the British, the Sokoto Caliphate was formally absorbed into the British protectorate of northern Nigeria.

This day is significant because it represents the beginning of the colonial era in Nigeria as well as the defeat of the Sokoto Sultan at the hands of the British soldiers. As was often the case in Africa, the majority of the British forces were made up of Africans, with European officers serving in leadership positions within the unit.

Due to the fact that the British invasion was fought by a majority of Hausa warriors, it is possible to interpret it as the outcome of an internal conflict that occurred inside the Sokoto caliphate.

However, the Caliphate did not exactly vanish altogether in 1903 due to the fact that the British used the Sokoto Caliphate as a foundation for developing their notion of indirect rule.

The overthrow of the caliphate from its position of authority

After a brief military campaign on the side of the British, the Sokoto Caliphate was legally incorporated into the British protectorate of northern Nigeria in the year 1903.

This occurred after the British military campaign. This day is notable because it marks the beginning of the colonial period in Nigeria as well as the defeat of the Sokoto Sultan at the hands of British forces.

Both of these events contributed to the commencement of the colonial era. The vast bulk of the British soldiers stationed in Africa were of Africans, with European commanders acting in positions of authority within the unit.

This was a common occurrence throughout the continent.

It is feasible to view the British invasion as the result of an internal battle that took place inside the Sokoto caliphate. This is possible due to the fact that the bulk of the warriors that participated in the British invasion were Hausa.

However, the Caliphate did not quite cease to exist in 1903 owing to the fact that the British utilized the Sokoto Caliphate as a basis for establishing their concept of indirect control. This meant that the Caliphate did not completely disappear.

F.A.Q What happened to religion in west africa when islam was first introduced?

What kind of an impact did the arrival of Islam have on West African culture?


The spread of Islam encouraged commercial interactions between West Africa and the Mediterranean. The religion was responsible for the expansion and growth of the trans-Saharan caravan trade. The commerce resulted in economic growth for West African and Muslim merchants. Muslims from North Africa arrived in large numbers and lived in the areas with the most economic activity.

When exactly did the religion of Islam first make its way to West Africa?

OVERVIEW: – Arab merchants from North Africa brought Islam to sub-Saharan West Africa as early as the eighth century. These traders brought Islam with them wherever they traveled. The Muslim merchants brought with them commerce and items that could be traded for gold. Additionally, they helped trade by bringing new ideas like as contract law and credit arrangements.

How did the Muslim faith make its way to West Africa?

Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam expanded across West Africa through merchants, traders, intellectuals, and missionaries. This was accomplished mostly via peaceful methods, since African kings either accepted the religion or converted to it themselves.

What kind of an effect did Islam’s perspective have on the old religious rituals that were prevalent in West Africa?

What kind of an effect did Islam’s perspective have on the old religious rituals that were prevalent in West Africa? The Muslims’ openness and acceptance of other religious traditions was a key factor in the religion’s rapid expansion. occupied a vast portion of the land on Earth, including a portion of Europe.

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