The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the Battle of Manassas, marked the first major land battle of the American Civil War. On July 21, 1861, Union and Confederate armies clashed near Manassas Junction, Virginia. The engagement began when about 35,000 Union troops marched from the federal capital in Washington, D.C. to strike a Confederate force of 20,000 along a small river known as Bull Run. After fighting on the defensive for most of the day, the rebels rallied and were able to break the Union right flank, sending the Federals into a chaotic retreat towards Washington. The Confederate victory gave the South a surge of confidence and shocked many in the North, who realized the war would not be won as easily as they had hoped.
by sending unarmed supply ships to the fort; by directing Union soldiers to evacuate the fort; by refusing to send supply ships to the fort; by sending Union troops to defend the fort; by refusing to send supply ships to the fort; by ordering Union soldiers to leave the fort
protect and strengthen the Union.
Destroy the economic foundations of the Confederacy.
obliterate the armed forces of the Confederacy.
Slavery in the states of the South
Western states were home to slavery.
split between Northern and Southern states
conflict with the southern states
The United States government had not formally acknowledged the right of the states to secede.
Both the North and the South were in agreement that they would not capture the forts of the opposite side.
Only the Union could benefit from the fort’s advantageous location.
Both sides want to steer clear of a conflict between the Northern and Southern states.
Both Lincoln and Davis saw Davis as an equally capable leader.
Both men believed that Abraham Lincoln was the legitimate leader of the Union.
Both parties held the view that it was legal for the South to secede from the Union.
were opposed to secession from the Union.
State of North Carolina
the election of Abraham Lincoln in the year 1860, the breakaway of South Carolina in the same year, and the Battle of Fort Sumter in the year 1861
the victory of Jefferson Davis in the election of 1861
much less than two days
Over the course of more than three days, one week, and one month
Union men to withdraw from the fort at a later time.
It was very important to him that the fort not be taken over by Confederate troops.
He did not want it to seem like he was caving in to the Confederacy’s demands.
He had the intention of beginning a violent clash with the troops from the South there.
It served as the seat of government for the Union.
It obstructed the passage of ships heading north.
Before the year 1860, it was used as a Confederate base.
It provided protection for the business districts along the southern shore.
Fort Sumter, a federal stronghold located in Charleston, South Carolina, was stormed by Confederate soldiers in 1861, which marked the beginning of the Civil War. This event served as the spark that ignited the conflict.
1861–1865: The approach the Union used to win the Civil War. The plan was to employ a naval blockade to stop Southern shipments, then split the remaining states in two, shut off Louisiana and Texas from the rest of the South by controlling the Mississippi River, and finally occupy Texas and Louisiana. The strategy was to suffocate the economy of the South.
During the time of the American Civil War, these two locations served as the capitals of the Confederacy.
Both Jefferson Davis and Stephens, who were considered to be on the more moderate side, served as the interim president and vice president of the South. They chose moderates in an effort to convince the slave states who were still on the fence and get them over to their side.
1st major battle of the Civil War; Confederate victory after inexperienced Union soldiers attacked inexperienced Confederate soldiers in northern Virginia near a small river of the same name; attended by civilians who went to the battle to watch and picnic, but who fled in panic when fighting broke out; attended by civilians who went to the battle to watch and picnic, but who fled when fighting broke out (1861)
During the time of the American Civil War, a major general. He was the general-in-chief of the Union Army for a short period of time (November 1861 to March 1862) and was responsible for organizing the famed Army of the Potomac. In the early stages of the war, McClellan was instrumental in the Union’s efforts to raise an army that was both well-trained and well-organized. Consistently underestimated the strength of the Confederate army, which contributed to the defeat of the Peninsula Campaign; as a result, he was dismissed.
A general for the Confederacy who participated in several engagements. One of his primary intentions leading up to the conclusion of the Civil War was to wait for a new president to take office before attempting to negotiate a peace settlement with him. Participated in the Peninsular Campaign and the battles of the Second Battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville (with Jackson), and Gettysburg.
Stonewall Jackson was an alias. Hero of the First Battle of Bull Run and leader of the Confederate forces fighting there. Robert E. Lee’s closest counsel and “right arm” throughout their time together. At the Battle of Chancellorsville, one of his own soldiers was the one to unintentionally take his life.
The Army of the Potomac is one of the three great armies that are protecting the Union (also called the North, and referred to as Yankees). Under McClellan’s direction Its initial objective was to protect the nation’s capital, which is located in Washington, District of Columbia. The second objective of this organization was to prevail against General Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia.
The First Action of Bull Run, which also goes by the name the Battle of Manassas, was the first significant land battle fought during the American Civil War. Both names refer to the same conflict. An engagement between Union and Confederate forces took place in Manassas Junction, Virginia, on July 21, 1861. The conflict started when around 35,000 Union soldiers marched from the federal capital in Washington, D.C. to attack a Confederate army that was 20,000 strong near a little river known as Bull Run. After spending much of the day on the defense during combat, the rebels rallied and were eventually successful in breaking the Union right flank. This caused the Federal forces to retire in a disorganized manner towards Washington. The success of the Confederacy inspired a wave of self-assurance in the South and stunned many people in the North, who suddenly realized that the war would not be as simple to win as they had imagined.
The First Action of Bull Run, commonly known as the Engagement of Manassas, was the first important land battle that was fought during the American Civil War. It is also known by its alternative name, the Battle of Bull Run. Both names allude to the same fight that took place. On July 21, 1861, there was a battle that took place near Manassas Junction, Virginia, between troops belonging to the Union and the Confederacy. In the little river known as Bull Run, the fight began when about 35,000 men from the Union army marched out of the nation’s capitol in Washington, D.C. with the intention of attacking a Confederate force that was 20,000 strong near the area. The rebels rallied after spending a significant portion of the day on the defensive during warfare, and they were finally successful in breaching the right flank of the union’s position. Because of this, the federal troops were forced to retreat into Washington in a haphazard and chaotic way. Many people in the North were taken aback by the success of the Confederacy, as it made them realize all of a sudden that the war might not be as easy to win as they had believed it would be. This revelation caused a rush of confidence to sweep across the South.
Have you been informed? Stonewall Jackson gained even more notoriety for his exploits in the Shenandoah Valley, Second Manassas, and Fredericksburg after his victory at First Manassas. At Chancellorsville, the man who Lee referred to as his “right arm” was shot by one of Lee’s own soldiers, and he later passed away as a result of complications related to the wounds.
Because the cautious McDowell, who was in charge of the 35,000 Union volunteer forces who had assembled in the Federal capital at the time, was aware that his men were unprepared, he advocated for a delay of the advance so that he might have more time to train them. Lincoln reasoned (incorrectly) that the rebel army was made up of equally inexperienced warriors. Nevertheless, he ordered him to commence the attack anyhow. On July 16, McDowell’s army started moving out of Washington. Because of the army’s slow movement, Beauregard was able to call on his fellow Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston for reinforcements. Beauregard had also received advance notice of his enemy’s movements through a Confederate spy network in Washington. It was possible for Johnston, who was in charge of around 11,000 rebels in the Shenandoah Valley, to outmaneuver a Union force that was present in the area and march his forces towards Manassas.
On July 21, the Union army led by McDowell launched an attack, during which they shelled the enemy across Bull Run while more men crossed the river at Sudley Ford in an effort to target the Confederate left flank. Over the course of two hours, 10,000 Federal soldiers made steady progress in driving 4,500 opposing rebels back over the Warrington road and up Henry House Hill. Reporters, congressmen, and other onlookers who had traveled from Washington and were watching the battle from the nearby countryside prematurely celebrated a victory for the Union; however, reinforcements from both Johnston’s and Beauregard’s armies soon arrived on the battlefield to rally the Confederate troops. Eventually, the Union was defeated. Near Henry House Hill, the afternoon saw both sides engage in a back-and-forth of assaults and counterattacks. Even though the Union forces were having trouble coordinating the attacks of their various regiments, Johnston and Beauregard’s commands caused an increasing number of Confederate reinforcements to arrive at the battlefield.
At four o’clock in the afternoon, both armies had almost the same number of troops engaged in combat (roughly 18,000 soldiers from each side were fighting at Bull Run), and Beauregard gave the order to launch a counterattack throughout the whole of the front line. The Confederates were successful in breaking the Union line while yelling as they approached, which would later become known as the “rebel shout.” As McDowell’s Federal forces made a disorderly retreat across Bull Run, they collided head-on with hundreds of Washington civilians who had been watching the battle while picnicking in the fields east of the river and were now making their own hasty retreat. These civilians had been watching the battle while they were watching the battle while they were picnicking.
At the First Battle of Manassas, future leaders on both sides, including Ambrose E. Burnside and William T. Sherman for the Union, and future Confederate leaders like J.E.B. Stuart, Wade Hampton, and most famously Thomas J. Jackson, who earned his enduring nickname “Stonewall” Jackson in the battle, fought. Jackson, a former professor at the Virginia Military Institute, led a Virginia brigade from the Shenandoah Valley into the conflict at a crucial juncture, which assisted the Confederates in maintaining a significant high ground position at Henry House Hill. Jackson was standing there “like a stone wall,” and General Barnard Bee encouraged his soldiers to look at him and have courage because he was there “like a stone wall.” Bee was eventually slain in the conflict.
Despite their win, Confederate soldiers were much too disorganized to push their advantage and pursue the fleeing Yankees, who arrived in Washington on July 22. This prevented the Confederacy from capitalizing on their triumph. During the First Battle of Bull Run, also known as First Manassas in the South, there were around 3,000 losses on the Union side, compared to just 1,750 on the Confederate side. Northerners who had anticipated a speedy and definitive win were left reeling by its conclusion, while the outcome gave southerners who were already cheering a false optimism that they also might pull off a swift triumph. In point of fact, soon enough both sides would be forced to confront the realities of a protracted and arduous battle that would take an inconceivable toll on the nation and the people living in it.
On the Confederate side, allegations flew between Johnston, Beauregard, and President Jefferson Davis over who was to blame for the failure to follow and destroy the enemy after the fight. Johnston was accused of being responsible for the failure to pursue and crush the enemy. Lincoln dismissed McDowell from command of the Union forces holding Washington and replaced him with George B. McClellan. McClellan would retrain and reorganize the Union soldiers defending Washington into a disciplined combat force, which would later become known as the Army of the Potomac.