Which of the following statement best explains the theory of natural selection? Natural selection is a process that is regulated by changes in environmental conditions.
These changes impose stress on the organisms that are undergoing natural selection. That makes it necessary for the organisms to go through changes.
If the organism goes through changes that are suitable for the environment, that is, if it is able to survive in the environment, then it will also pass on those characteristics to the subsequent generation, at least until the next change takes place. This phenomenon is known as natural selection.
The correct response is “Individuals with the most desirable features survive and reproduce,” since this is the most likely scenario.
The process of evolution that is known as natural selection. Organisms that are better able to adapt to their surroundings have a greater chance of surviving and passing on the genes that contributed to their success to future generations. Because of this process, species inevitably end up changing and becoming more distinct over time.
One of the ways in which the millions of species that have ever existed on Earth may be explained is via the process of natural selection.
Due to the fact that they co-published a paper on the subject in 1858, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) are given equal credit for developing the idea of evolution by natural selection. Since the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859, however, Darwin has typically eclipsed Wallace’s contributions to the study of evolution.
The library in the Museum of Natural History has the greatest collection of Darwin’s works in the world, with 478 versions of On the Origin of Species written in 38 different languages. In the store of the Museum, you may get your very own copy of this renowned work that is based on an edition that was first published.
At the time of Darwin and Wallace, the majority of people felt that creatures were much too sophisticated to have arisen from natural causes and that they must have been created by a supernatural being. However, according to the theory of natural selection, even the most sophisticated creatures come into existence due to purely natural processes.
‘It’s not that scientists don’t grasp that creatures are sophisticated and useful, and it does seem almost amazing that they exist,’ says Prof. Adrian Lister, a researcher at the Museum. We are aware of that fact; but, we believe that we have discovered an alternative method of explaining it.
Wallace (on the left) and Darwin (on the right) both developed quite comparable explanations for evolution. However, Darwin’s contributions have, for the most part, eclipsed Wallace’s work.
In the process of natural selection, genetic changes that are advantageous to the survival of an individual are passed on to their offspring via the process of reproduction. As a consequence, a new generation of organisms is produced, which has a greater chance of surviving to reproduce.
For instance, the evolution of long necks has given giraffes an edge over other animals since it enables them to eat leaves that other animals are unable to reach. Those individuals with longer necks were more likely to live, breed, and hence pass on the feature to the generation that came after them because of the improved food supply. Those individuals who had shorter necks and had less access to food would have had a lower chance of surviving to pass on their genes.
According to Adrian, “If you took a thousand giraffes and measured their necks, you would find that each one of them is somewhat different from the other.” These disparities are at least partially determined by the genes of the individuals involved. The individuals that have longer necks may have produced proportionately more offspring due to the fact that they have nourished better and may have been more successful in competing for mates due to their increased physical strength. If you were to measure the necks of the following generation, you would find that they vary just as much as the previous generation did, but the average will have moved slightly toward longer necks. The procedure is repeated over and over again in successive generations.
A trait, whether it be one’s body or one’s behavior, may be considered an adaptation if it assists an organism in surviving in its environment.
Max Barclay, Senior Curator in Charge of Coleoptera, discusses the means through which bombardier beetles extricate themselves from precarious situations.
However, not all of an animal’s traits may be classified as adaptations.
It is possible to repurpose modifications made for one purpose for another. For instance, feathers first evolved to aid in the process of thermoregulation; it wasn’t until much later that they were put to use in flying. This indicates that feathers are not an adaptation for flight but rather an exaptation for the purpose of flying.
It is also possible for adaptations to become obsolete, such as the hard rind that is seen on calabash fruits (Crescentia cujete). It is commonly believed that this gourd originated so that it could escape being consumed by gomphotheres, which are a family of mammals that resemble elephants. However, since these creatures were extinct around 10,000 years ago, the adaption of the fruit is no longer advantageous to the fruit’s survival.
There are other factors that contribute to evolution in addition to natural selection for adaptability. Alterations in species may also be brought about by processes such as genetic drift, gene flow, or mutations that have no net positive or negative effects on an individual.
In the context of evolutionary theory, a healthy animal is one that has successfully adapted to the conditions of its natural habitat. This idea is the foundation of natural selection, despite the fact that the phrase “survival of the fittest” is often misinterpreted and should should be avoided if possible.
Because evolution also involves a certain amount of unpredictability, the species that is best suited to survive may not necessarily be the one that does.
“If you’re going to be struck by a rock or whatever, it’s simply terrible luck,” says Adrian. On the other hand, statistically speaking and over the course of time, those individuals who are the healthiest and most adaptive are the ones who are most likely to endure.
During his time aboard the HMS Beagle, Darwin amassed a large number of animal specimens (1831-1836). The finches, of which he gathered around 14 different species from the Galapagos Islands, are among his most well-known work. There is a wide variety in beak lengths and profiles among the birds that belong to the same family according to the taxonomy. These relate to the fact that their principal food sources are distinct from one another, as well as the fact that they evolved independently on separate islands.
For instance, the beak of the green warbler-finch (Certhidea olivacea), which specializes on eating on minute insects, is pointed and narrow, making it ideal for the task. The huge ground finch, or Geospiza magnirostris, on the other hand, has a beak that is short and stocky, which it uses to split seeds and nuts.
As can be seen here from specimens of a green warbler-finch (L) and a huge ground finch (R), the Galápagos finches have beaks that are distinctively different in form and size from one another (R)
In spite of the widespread belief that Darwin’s finches were the source of his “eureka moment,” it was really mockingbirds that had the greatest influence on his ideas on evolution.
Before embarking on his journey to the Galápagos, Darwin amassed a collection of mockingbirds in South America. He recognized the bird as a mockingbird that he saw on the first island he visited, which was called Chatham Island back then. San Cristóbal. On the neighboring island of Floreana, however, he saw that the mockingbirds were very distinct from one another.
Darwin came to the conclusion that the differences between species of mockingbirds on the islands were far bigger than the differences he had seen between species of mockingbirds on the mainland. While Darwin was on board the HMS Beagle, he started to ponder many ideas, but it would be several years before he would come up with his theory of evolution by natural selection.
After the British ornithologist John Gould had established that the finches belonged to distinct species, he was able to utilize them as a valuable example among the many other kinds of creatures he saw.
These three specimens of mockingbirds were obtained by Charles Darwin in 1835 when he was visiting the Galapagos Islands aboard the HMS Beagle.
Today, finches are of interest to scientists for a number of reasons. The study of Daphne Major, a volcanic island in the Galápagos archipelago, began in 1972 and found that natural selection has resulted in changes in the beak shape and size of two species of finch: the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis), and the common cactus finch. These findings were based on observations made on Daphne Major (Geospiza scandens). It has been observed that the length of the beaks of both species gradually decreases over time, although in distinct ways.
Darwin held the view that natural selection was a process that moved slowly and only took place when a significant amount of time had passed. This may be the case most of the time, however research has revealed that there are circumstances in which a new species may emerge during a single lifetime.
The survival of a male finch that had immigrated from Santa Cruz Island and six generations of its progeny on Daphne Major was the subject of research conducted by scientists for a period of 31 years. The birds began to act as if they belonged to a distinct species beginning with the second generation after their arrival on the island.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a French naturalist, is honored in the name of the doctrine that bears his name: lamarckism (1744-1829). It suggests that animals acquire features not as a result of alterations that are hard-coded into their genes but rather as a result of usage or disuse throughout the course of their lives.
Giraffes, according to the Lamarckian idea, lengthen their necks by stretching them out. The progeny of these animals would have longer necks than their parents as a direct consequence of their parents’ efforts.
According to Adrian, “if you attempted to extend your neck for ten minutes every morning, then you would definitely end up with a few millimeters longer neck after a few years.” However, your offspring would not be able to inherit it. That is the point at which this idea falls apart.
For millennia, people believed that the world did not change at all. There was no concept of mountains being higher, nor was there any notion that climate or species might undergo change. It was believed that the Earth has the perfect configuration.
However, the process of natural selection is dependent on the fact that the environment is always evolving. Evolution is a necessary process for the organism’s continued existence, but for millions of years it has been lagging behind the rapidly changing environment around it.
“Organisms are either well suited enough to live and reproduce, or they are not well adapted, and the number decreases.” According to Adrian, it may even decrease to zero, which would indicate that the species would die out.
In the near run, scientists have been able to accurately forecast the effects of natural selection. However, because of the unpredictability of the changes that will take place in the environment in the future, it is almost difficult to anticipate its impacts with any degree of precision.
If an organism is able to continue existing in its environment, natural selection suggests that it has adapted to that environment. However, since the environment is always changing, it is possible that something that was previously an adaptation will no longer be helpful.
Even if rapid evolution is theoretically feasible, the faster the planet is changing, the more difficult it is for evolution to keep up, and the greater the likelihood that there will be a sharp spike in the number of species that fall extinct as a result.
The correct response is “Individuals with the most desirable features survive and reproduce,” since this is the most likely scenario.
Natural selection is a process that occurs in nature in which organisms that are more suited to their surroundings have a higher rate of reproductive success compared to those who are not as well adapted. There have been reports of other animals, such as snakes and birds, eating tree frogs.
The correct statement is that “organisms with more favorable features” are likely to survive and reproduce as a result of natural selection, which is a process. EXPLANATION: The process of “differential survival” and “reproduction in organisms” that have varying phenotypes is known as “natural selection.”
The answer that you are looking for is e: it is the various phenotypes that are the most fit that survive and reproduce. The hypothesis of evolution that has received the greatest support is Darwin’s theory, which is based on natural selection. The idea that the strongest and healthiest individuals would prevail is fundamental to Darwin’s natural selection hypothesis.