Why Neolithic revolution is considered as the most important development in human history brainly? The Neolithic Revolution was a significant change that led to the development of agriculture. It brought Homo sapiens from dispersed groups of hunter-gatherers to farming villages and, from there, to technologically advanced societies with great temples and towers and kings and priests who directed the labor of their subjects and recorded their achievements in written form. Agriculture was the first step in the development of civilization.
Mesopotamia, which is located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now southern Iraq, was the site of a realm known as Sumer, which dates back to approximately 4000 B.C.E. At the time, the Neolithic Revolution was viewed as a single event—a sudden flash of genius—that occurred in a single location. Mesopotamia is located in what is now southern Iraq.
After then, it disseminated all the way to India, Europe, and beyond. The vast majority of archaeologists were of the opinion that environmental changes were primarily responsible for the rapid expansion of human civilization.
These changes included a gradual warming that occurred as the Ice Age came to an end, which made it possible for some people to begin cultivating plants and herding animals in abundant numbers.
Around 12,000 years ago, when people first started farming, this decision was not made for any one specific reason. It’s possible that different parts of the world experienced the Neolithic Revolution for a variety of reasons.
After the end of the most recent ice age, around 14,000 years ago, the temperature of the Earth began to gradually rise. The theory that changes in climate were the driving force behind the agricultural revolution is held by certain experts.
As the climate became warmer, wild varieties of wheat and barley started to germinate and flourish in the Fertile Crescent, which is limited on the west by the Mediterranean Sea and on the east by the Persian Gulf. People who lived in the area before the Neolithic period and were termed Natufians began constructing permanent housing.
Other researchers in the scientific community think that individuals may have become more settled as a result of intellectual advancements in the human brain. The oldest Neolithic villages have been found to include religious objects and artistic iconography, both of which are considered to be the progenitors of human civilisation.
The transition from a nomadic, hunter-gatherer way of life to farming by certain human communities marked the beginning of the Neolithic era. It is possible that it took humans hundreds or even thousands of years to completely shift from a lifestyle in which they subsisted on wild plants to a lifestyle in which they kept tiny gardens and later on tended to enormous agricultural fields.
One segment of humanity eventually abandoned hunting and gathering in favor of agricultural practices. The practice of agriculture brought forth more cultural shifts along with it. For people to be able to manage their crops, they had to give up their nomadic lifestyle and settle down in permanent communities, where they also made new tools and ceramics.
Men and women armed with tools made of stone traversed the terrain for thousands of years, chopping off the heads of wild grain and carrying them back to their homes. Even though these folks may have cultivated and guarded their grain patches, the plants that they oversaw were still uncultivated wild plants. It is almost hard to harvest wild wheat and barley when they are completely mature because, unlike their domesticated counterparts, wild wheat and barley shatter when they reach maturity. This occurs because the kernels readily break off the plant and fall to the ground. When people planted large new areas with mutated plants that did not shatter at maturity, true grain agriculture began. This resulted in the creation of fields of domesticated wheat and barley that, in a sense, waited for farmers to harvest them. Genetically speaking, true grain agriculture did not begin until this time.
People were no longer had to scour the environment for food since they could now cultivate as much as they required and just where they required it. This allowed them to dwell in greater communities together. As the population grew at a rapid pace, people were able to communicate their thoughts more easily, leading to greater rates of technical and social innovation. Both religious practice and artistic creation, two pillars upon which civilization is built, thrived.
Archaeologists found evidence of human habitation in the Levant as far back as 13,000 B.C.E. in the region that is now known as Israel, the Palestinian territories, Lebanon, Jordan, and western Syria. They are known as Natufian towns, and they emerged all throughout the Levant when the Ice Age was coming to a close, ushering in a period when the climate of the area became relatively mild and moist. The name of these settlements originates from the first of these sites to be discovered.
Even though they lived in permanent villages of up to several hundred people, the Natufians were not farmers; rather, they were foragers who hunted gazelles and gathered wild rye, barley, and wheat. Around 10,800 B.C.E., the Natufian villages experienced difficult times as a result of a sudden drop in regional temperatures of approximately 12 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature drop was part of a mini ice age that lasted for 1,200 years and resulted in much drier conditions across the Fertile Crescent. As the amount of available animal habitat and grain patches decreased, the population of a number of communities suddenly increased beyond the capacity of the available food supply. A large number of individuals reverted to their former lifestyle as nomadic foragers and began scouring the area for any surviving sources of sustenance.
Some of the villages made an attempt to adapt to the increasingly dry circumstances by nurturing the local stands of rye and maybe replacing them. Rye grains were larger than their wild counterparts, which is a likely indicator of domestication. Cultivation often enhances features that humans find useful, such as fruit and seed size, and domestication is no exception to this rule.
The Natufian protovillages that were found in the Levant provided evidence that showed that farming originated as a response to a crisis that occurred after settlement had already taken place. Humans in the remaining somewhat productive places chose to remain in place and continue subsisting, which resulted in the development of agriculture. This was despite the fact that the climate was drying up and becoming cooler at the same time.
There is evidence that organized religion might have existed before the development of agriculture and other parts of civilization. This evidence comes in the form of the building of gigantic temples by tribes of foragers. It implies that the human drive to congregate for holy rituals developed when people switched from considering themselves as part of the natural world to wanting dominion over it. This transition occurred about the same time that humans began to regard sacred rituals as important. When nomadic people started living in communities, they inevitably established a boundary between the human domain, which consisted of a concentrated cluster of dwellings with hundreds of people, and the perilous wilderness that lay beyond the campfire and was inhabited by hazardous animals.
This transformation in human awareness may be described as a “revolution of symbols,” or a change in perspective that made it possible for people to conceive of gods as supernatural entities who resembled humans and that resided in a cosmos that was apart from the physical world. There is a possibility that the animal figurines found at Gobekli Tepe served as gatekeepers to the spirit realm.
It is likely that individuals who lived within a radius of one hundred miles of Gobekli Tepe were the ones who built the temple and used it as a sacred location to congregate and socialize. These people may have brought offerings and tributes to the temple’s priests and craftspeople. Not only would the construction of it have required some kind of social structure, but also the management of the multitudes that it drew in would have required one. One can see singing and drumming, and the creatures carved into the massive pillars appear to move slightly when the flickering torchlight catches their eyes. The discovery of stone basins that may have been used for beer indicates that there were most certainly celebrations of some kind.
It is possible that the requirement to obtain adequate food for those who worked and congregated for rituals at Gobekli Tepe led to the intense cultivation of wild grains and the establishment of some of the earliest domestic strains. These people worked and gathered at the site known as Gobekli Tepe. In point of fact, modern researchers are of the opinion that one agricultural hub emerged in southern Turkey, well within reasonable walking distance of Gobekli Tepe, at the same time that the temple was at the height of its power. On the slopes of Karaca Dag, a mountain located around 100 kilometers (60 miles) northeast of Gobekli Tepe, are located the wild progenitors of current einkorn wheat that are known to be the most closely related.
Nevali ‘ori, which is pronounced nuh-vah-LUH CHO-ree and is located in the highlands not more than 30 kilometers distant, is where some of the earliest evidence of the domestication of plants has been discovered. Along with Gobekli Tepe, Nevali ‘ori was first inhabited not long after the end of the Little Ice Age, a period of time that archaeologists refer to with the unappealing phrase “Pre-pottery Neolithic” (PPN). Nevali Ori has been completely submerged by a new lake that was recently constructed and now supplies the area with both energy and water for cultivation. However, before the floods prevented further investigation, researchers discovered T-shaped pillars and animal images that were quite similar to those seen at Gobekli Tepe. PPN communities as far out as one hundred miles from Gobekli Tepe had pillars and images that were quite similar to those at Gobekli Tepe. A community of faith that surrounded Gobekli Tepe and may have been the world’s first truly large religious grouping is indicated by the imagery found in these PPN sites. While it is reasonable to assume that homes with images of the Virgin Mary belonged to Christians in today’s world, the imagery found in these PPN sites points to a shared religion.
Even though there is no trace of dwellings at Gobekli Tepe, this does not indicate that no one ever lived there. And archaeologists who are researching the beginnings of civilization in the Fertile Crescent are becoming more skeptical of any effort to pinpoint a single, overarching scenario or major cause for the rise of human society in that region. It seems more likely that the people who lived in the various archaeological sites were experimenting with the elements that make up a civilization, seeking for different combinations to see which ones were successful. Agriculture may have been the cornerstone in one region, while the arts and religion may have laid the groundwork in another, and population pressures or the establishment of social order and hierarchy in still another. In the end, they were all brought together in the same location. It’s possible that there is no one way to reach civilization; rather, diverse methods have been used in various parts of the world to get there. A not too distant past, the concept that natural factors were the driving force behind civilization was the accepted one. The newly discovered evidence implies that human minds are responsible for the development of civilisation.
It is one of the most well-preserved Neolithic towns that can be seen in the archaeological site of Atalhoyuk in southern Turkey. Researchers have gained a better grasp of how people transitioned from a nomadic lifestyle of hunting and gathering to a lifestyle based on agriculture as a result of their study of Atalhoyuk.
At the 9,500-year-old site of atalhoyük, archaeologists have discovered the remains of more than a dozen homes constructed of mud bricks. They speculate that there may have been as many as 8,000 individuals living in this area at one point. Because the houses were packed in so tightly against one another, the only way for the occupants to access their dwellings was via a hole in the roof.
It would imply that the people who lived in Atalhoyuk placed a high priority on artistic expression and spirituality. They placed their deceased family members and friends under the flooring of their homes. The walls of the dwellings are adorned with paintings depicting masculine hunters, herds of livestock, and various female deities.
The archaeological site of Tell Abu Hureyra, which is a tiny settlement in modern-day Syria and is situated along the Euphrates River, is credited with providing some of the oldest evidence of agricultural practices. Approximately 11,500 to 7,000 years before the common era, people lived in the town.
In the beginning, the people who lived in Tell Abu Hureyra would go hunting for gazelle and other types of animals. Around the year 9,700 B.C., people first started gathering wild cereals. At the site, archaeologists discovered a number of massive stone mills used for grinding grain.
The Neolithic Revolution resulted in large numbers of people settling down in permanent communities that were maintained by farming and agricultural practices. It paved the way for the innovations of the subsequent Bronze Age and Iron Age, when advancements in the creation of tools for farming, wars, and art swept the world and brought civilizations together through trade and conquest. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were both periods that followed the Stone Age.
Important outcomes of the Neolithic Revolution were the initiation of permanent settlements, the transition to sedentary farming, an increase in the average lifespan, and a rise in population.
The megalithic architecture of the Neolithic period, the proliferation of agricultural methods, and the use of polished stone implements are all key aspects of this time period.
It is generally agreed that the Neolithic Revolution marked a significant turning point in history since it promoted a nomadic way of life. Domestication of animals and cultivation of crops led to the establishment of permanent societies, which is one reason why the Neolithic Revolution is seen as a turning point in the history of the globe.
Stonehenge is a prime illustration of the cultural advancements that resulted from the Neolithic revolution, which is often regarded as the most significant change in the annals of human history.