Numerous highly impactful threads were weaved into the historical fabric of Medieval Europe. The thread of religion, the church, and the Christian faith was one of the most significant knitted threads in the tapestry of this century.
The enormously profoundly changing event of the Great Schism in 1054 was an integral component of this theological thread in the Medieval fabric. In its own religious right, the Great Schism was one of the most profoundly basic and consequential events in the evolution of a religion, society, and history.
Furthermore, the Great Schism lay the groundwork for Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation, paving the way and serving as a theological forerunner. As a result, the Great Schism of 1054 had far-reaching political, cultural, social, theological, and historical ramifications.
For many years, the Great Schism’s legacy of disunity would be seen in the church, Christian faith, and religion.
Western Schism, also known as Great Schism or Great Western Schism, was a period in the history of the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417 during which there were two, and subsequently three, competing popes, each with his own followers, Sacred College of Cardinals, and administrative positions.
The archbishop of Bari was elected pope as Urban VI shortly after the papal house was returned to Rome after almost 70 years at Avignon, amid calls from the Roman public for “a Roman or at least an Italian.”
Because Urban VI was so antagonistic to the cardinals, who had risen to enormous influence during the years at Avignon, a group of cardinals withdrew to Anagni and elected one of their own, Robert of Geneva, as Clement VII, arguing that Urban VI’s election was illegal because it had been performed under duress.
After that, Clement VII moved to Avignon. Although most Roman Catholic church historians believe that Urban VI and his successors were the genuine popes, no formal declaration to that effect has ever been made.
The Western Schism has separated the Roman Catholic Church since 1378, during which the papal authority was divided…
The church suffered severe consequences as a result of the double election. The dual papacy exacerbated the political tensions of the period since the two popes’ adherents were split primarily along national lines. The sight of opposing popes criticizing one other caused widespread consternation and a significant drop in the papacy’s reputation.
Several recommendations for settling the schism were presented, including one by the University of Paris, which urged mutual resignation or a ruling by an impartial tribunal or a general council. This final suggestion was in keeping with the emerging conciliar movement, which holds that a general council has more power than the pope. Both lineages of popes were adamant in their refusal to capitulate.
To settle the split, cardinals from both obediences convened the Council of Pisa in 1409, which elected a third pope, Alexander V, who was followed soon after by Baldassare Cossa, who assumed the name John XXIII.
Under emperor Sigismund’s urging, John convened the Council of Constance in 1414, which ousted him, accepted the resignation of the Roman pope, Gregory XII, and disregarded the claims of the Avignon pope, Benedict XIII. This sequence of events paved the stage for Martin V’s election in November 1417, which effectively ended the schism.
The eastern church was permitted to marry, Greek was their official language, and they considered the patriarch was just a leader of a region. The pope, according to the West, is the spiritual leader of all Christians. The huge divide resulted from these disparities.
The Eastern Byzantine Christian Church and the Western Roman Catholic Church were irrevocably split by the Great Schism. The popes in Rome claimed papal primacy, but the Eastern leaders dismissed the assertion. As a result, western popes and eastern patriarchs were excommunicated.
Martin Luther’s “95 Theses” sparked controversy and spawned a new religion, Protestantism. The Protestant Reformation had two important consequences on the Catholic Church: it changed the function of the Pope and it separated Christians, which is known as the “Great Schism.”
Disagreements about papal authority—the Pope claimed jurisdiction over the four Eastern Greek-speaking patriarchs—and the addition of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creed were the main causes of the Schism.
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